The Family Life Project (FLP) investigates the effects of environmental exposures in non-urban contexts on family functioning and child health and development. Beginning in 2003, the FLP cohort consists of a sample of 1,292 children and primary caregivers followed from birth in predominantly low-income and rural counties in Pennsylvania (PA) and North Carolina (NC). A specific focus of the FLP has been the prospective investigation of associations between early-life stress—characterized by the physical and psychosocial characteristics of the home, including parenting quality—and neurodevelopment in the area of self-regulation. Additional areas of focus include child language development, school achievement, risk for psychopathology, and physical and mental health.